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2nd International Conference on Cancer Genetics and Epigenetics , will be organized around the theme “”
Epigenetics and Cancer 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Epigenetics and Cancer 2018
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When the body's control mechanism stops working properly and the cells remain no longer normal, they start growing abnormally and uncontrollably, hence causing Cancer. Old cells do not die and instead grow out of control, forming new, abnormal cells. These extra cells may form a mass of tissue, called a tumor. A tumor can be benign and malignant as well. Benign tumors lack the ability to metastasize whereas malignant are life-threatening and metastasize which leads to cancer.
- Track 1-1Cancer Types
- Track 1-2Cancer Causes
Throughout history, countless causes of cancer have been proposed including: angering the gods, fermenting or acidic lymph, chronic irritation, trauma, and infection. From the Humoral theory in the middle ages to the discovery of DNA structure in the mid-20th century, science has found many types and the causes of cancer. These theories stood unchallenged until when Galileo and Newton began to use the scientific method, which laid the foundations for the modern scientific study of disease.
Those theories and beliefs have evolved when you fast forward time nearly 200 years to 2012. And the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) identified more than 100 chemical, physical, and biological carcinogens (agents that cause cancer by damaging DNA or disrupting cell metabolism).
To identify causes and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and cure for cancer, the scientific community is indulged in research work all over the world. May it is research centers, institutes, companies, and hospitals, all contributions account a step by step progress against cancer.
Ranging from molecular bioscience to the clinical trials, Cancer research evaluates and compares applications of various Cancer treatments. Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, immunotherapy and combined treatment modalities such as chemo-radiotherapy being such applications. The mid-1990s marks the shifting of clinical cancer research to therapies derived from biotechnology research, such as cancer immunotherapy and gene therapy.
The end step in a long process that begins in a research lab is Clinical Trials. After many years of research work to understand its effects on cancer cells in the lab and in animals, a new treatment is used with people in clinical trials.
Through clinical trials, doctors determine whether the new treatments are safe and effective and work better than current treatments. It helps in finding new ways to prevent and detect cancer and also to improve the quality of life for people during and after treatment.
Early treatments focused on improving surgical techniques for removing tumors. It was the 1900s when Radiation therapy and Chemotherapeutics came into the picture and were refined throughout the 20th century.
Emerging topics in cancer treatment research include:
- Anti-cancer vaccines
- Newer forms of chemotherapy
- Gene therapy
- Photodynamic therapy
- Radiation therapy
- Reoviridae (Reolysin drug therapy)
- Targeted therapy
- Natural killer cells can induce immunological memory
Research is being developed to modify their action against cancer.
- Track 4-1Diagnostics and Staging
The removal of tissue from the body is called Surgery. About 60% of patients will undergo some type of surgery to treat their cancer. In some cases, surgery is the only treatment required. It may also be combined with chemotherapy or radiation as part of an overall treatment plan. The place, type, size, stage of cancer and our general health, determine whether surgery is needed.
The several types of cancer surgery are:
- Curative surgery
- Preventive surgery
- Reconstructive surgery
- Staging surgery
- Supportive surgery
- Palliative surgery
- Minimally invasive surgery
Cancer genomics is the study of the complete set of DNA sequence and differences between gene expression of tumor cells and normal host cells. It aims to understand the genetic basis of tumor cell proliferation and the evolution of the cancer genome under mutation and selection by the body environment, the immune system and therapeutic interventions. Epigenomics is the study of the total epigenetic modifications on the genetic material of a cell.
The study of heritable changes in gene expression, excluding changes to the basic DNA arrangement (i.e., an adjustment in phenotype without an adjustment in genotype) is called Epigenetics. An epigenetic change is a normal, natural and characteristic occurrence yet can likewise be affected by a few factors including age, the environment/lifestyle, and illness state. Epigenetic modifications can show as normally as the way in which cells terminally separate to differentiate as liver cells, skin cells, etc. Alternately, epigenetic change can have all the more harming impacts that can bring illnesses, disease.
- Track 7-1Clinical epigenetics
- Track 7-2Developmental Epigenetics
- Track 7-3Nutritional Epigenetics
- Track 7-4Neural and behavioral epigenetics
- Track 7-5Epigenetics - Neurodevelopmental and Neurodegenerative disease
The study of epigenetic modifications of the Cancer cell genome, which does not bring a change in the nucleotide sequence, is called Cancer Epigenetics. Risk expectation, Prediction and Cancer prevention, growth counteractive actions are also promising and encouraging areas of Epigenetics. A high adequacy of demethylating agents was accounted for essentially in haematological malignancies in view of new conventions with the low dose and long exposure, and their utilization is presently being striven for strong tumors.
During the cell transformation to a cancerous cell, Epigenetic modifications are also important like genetic mutations. Their manipulation brings a great promising approach for prevention, detection, and therapy of Cancer.
Environmental contaminants and toxicants are far reaching all through the world and can incorporate different materials and chemicals, from by results of ignition to contamination trace metals and organic natural mixes utilized as a part of day by day life. Presentation of changing sums and sorts of these contaminants is connected to impacts on human well-being. The fields of natural wellbeing and toxicology have concentrated on bettering the comprehension of how these contaminants affect biological processes so that their wellbeing effects can be lessened or anticipated.
Numerous diseases are brought about by various types of alterations among different genes. Some of these progressions are hereditary changes that are passed along in families while some are mutations that happen due to various hazardous environmental factors.
A biomarker also called biological marker, generally refers to a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition, by which a particular pathological or physiological process, disease, etc., can be identified.
It can be a traceable substance that is introduced into an organism as a means to examine organ function or other aspects of health.
A cancer biomarker is a biological marker which indicates the presence of cancer in the body. Genetic, epigenetic, proteomic, glycomic, and imaging biomarkers are used for diagnosis, prognosis, and epidemiology of cancer.
Because they are expressed against a person's genetic background and environmental exposure, and epigenetic events occur early in cancer development, Epigenetic biomarkers are more advantageous over other types of biomarkers.
Epigenetic biomarkers potentially have numerous clinical applications in cancer intervention and treatment and significant implications for public health.
Types of epigenetic biomarkers:
- DNA methylation, circulating or noncirculating
- MicroRNA and other noncoding RNA
- Protein markers
For e.g., DNA methylation is one of the major epigenetic mechanisms and it is a genetic feature better reflecting disease development and, consequently, has the potential to become a more conclusive biomarker for detection and diagnosis of different diseases.